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Sample Undergraduate 2:2 Health and Social Care Assignment

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Is a minimum unit price an effective and cost-effective policy for reducing alcohol-related harm?

Globally, alcohol is ranked as the seventh leading risk factor for ill-health, disability and death among all ages, increasing steadily between 1990 and 2016 (Global Burden of Disease [GBD], 2016). In the United Kingdom (UK), alcohol is the fourth leading cause among all ages, and among those aged 15-49 is the second, accounting for 5.8% of all disability adjusted life years (DALYs). The economic burden of alcohol is estimated to be as much as $52 billion annually (Rehm et al., 2009).

The burden of alcohol related harm is wide ranging, impacting not only on the drinkers themselves, but those around them (Laslett et al., 2010). Alcohol related harm relates to the dose and frequency of consumption, though mostly harm increases in a dose-response fashion, with greater levels of consumption being associated with greater levels of harm (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Patterns of drinking equate to types of harm, for example single occasions of high volume consumption increase risk of injury (Taylor et al., 2010) and heart arrhythmia (Voskoboinik et al., 2016), while lower levels of frequent consumption increase the risk of hypertension (Husain et al., 2014), and regular heavy drinking is associated with alcohol-related liver disease (Rehm et al., 2010). Alcohol interacts with other risky behaviours in a synergistic way, such that the sum of the two risks for a condition is less than the observed level of risk – this is true for smoking and drinking and head and neck cancers (Hart et al., 2010), and drinking and excess weight for liver disease (Liu et al., 2010).

The harm caused by alcohol is not isolated to health. Families are affected by alcohol due to relationship breakdown (Barnow et al., 2002), intimate partner violence (WHO, 2012), and child abuse and neglect (Magura and Laudet, 1996). Alcohol is also an important factor in criminal behavior (Johnston et al., 2012), involved in almost half of all violent incidents (Kroner et al., 2007). Alcohol also impacts negatively on factors relating to the workplace, associated with higher levels of unemployment (Henkel, 2011), absenteei why college athletes should not be paid essay / paragraph and essay writing / i suck at writing essays / essay writing courses online / what to write a research paper on / essay writers review / help writing an essay for college / how to write an evaluative essay / what is a college essay / princess writing paper / a level essay writing / write an essay about education / writing essays in english /